答：這是一個倉促的概括，因為它的樣本量很小。鮑勃根據他的經驗判斷所有梨都是酸的（樣本量很小）。1. Read the following example. What is the fallacy?
Bob said: "I ate a pear today. It was sour! All pears are sour!"
Answer: This is a hasty generalization because it is a small sample size. Bob judges all pears are sour on the basis of his experience (sample size is very small).
答案：該示例犯了錯誤的類比謬誤。錯誤的類比謬論假定，因為兩件事在一個或多個方面是相似的，所以它們在某些方面必然是相似的。該示例假定咖啡和酒精的功能相同，因為它們都是液體。2. Read the following example. What is the fallacy?
Coffee makes Bob energetic.
Both coffee and alcohol are liquids. Alcohol can make Bob energetic, too.
Answer: The example commits a faulty analogy fallacy. Faulty analogy fallacy assumes that because two things are alike in one or more respects, they are necessarily alike in some other respect. The example assumes that coffee and alcohol are the same in function because they are both liquids.
答：音素。詞素是演繹論證，缺少一個或多個部分，這是最常見的演繹論證。3. Fill in the blank: _______ is deductive arguments that are missing one or more parts.
Answer: Enthymemes. Enthymemes are deductive arguments that are missing one or more parts, which are the most commonly encountered deductive arguments.
答案：這是一個非必不可少的論點。假設鮑勃生活在馬爾代夫是一個謬論，因為這使人們假設生活在馬爾代夫的人是唯一熱愛陽光的人。結論不符合前提。4. Read the following example. What is the fallacy?
People who live in Maldive love the sunshine.
Bob loves sunshine.
Bob lives in Maldive.
Answer: This is a non-sequitur argument. It is a fallacy to assume that Bob lives in Maldive because that is making the assumption that people who live in Maldive are the only people who love the sunshine. The conclusion does not follow the premises.
答：基本的演繹論點稱為三段論。三段論是一種邏輯論證，其中的結論是根據前提（范疇命題）推論得出的。三段論定律采用兩個條件陳述，并通過將一個陳述的假設與另一個陳述的結論相結合來形成結論。三段論包括三個部分：主要前提，次要前提和結論。它構成了一個基本的演繹論點。5. What is a Syllogism? Explain.
Answer: The basic deductive arguments are called Syllogisms. A syllogism is a kind of logical argument in which the conclusion is inferred from the premises (categorical propositions). The law of syllogism takes two conditional statements and forms a conclusion by combining the hypothesis of one statement with the conclusion of another. A Syllogism contains three parts: the Major Premise, the Minor Premise, and the conclusion. It constitutes a basic deductive argument.
答：謬論是紅色鯡魚，它把無關緊要的材料引入了論點。這位政治家轉移了難民的主要議題，并將對話轉向外交政策，這是他更加準備和舒適地談論的話題。6. Read the following conversation. What is the fallacy in the conversation?
Journalists: "What would you do about the refugees?"
Politician: "It is a very good question. We understand that the international society has been closely focused on this matter. We are also very care about the problem. We will make efforts on it just like we did on our trade policy – we made some great changes there too!"
Answer: The fallacy is red herring, which introduces irrelevant material into an argument. The politician deflects the main issue of refugees and shifts the conversation towards foreign policy, which is a topic that he is more prepared and comfortable talking about.
答：錯。可靠性是對命題真理的置信度。可靠的論據是被認為足以相信或采取行動的論據。概化的可靠性取決于樣本大小和樣本寬度。假設的可靠性取決于證據量。可靠性不一定等于真理。7. True or False: Reliability equals truth.
Answer: False. Reliability is the degree of confidence that is placed in the truth of a proposition. A reliable argument is one that is considered to be sufficiently true to believe or act upon. The Reliability of a Generalization depends on the Sample Size and Breadth of the sample. The Reliability of a Hypothesis depends on the amount of evidence. Reliability does not necessarily equal truth.
答案：論點廣告Hominem通過攻擊某人而非陳述來拒絕或駁回該人的陳述。例如，鮑勃每年夏天去打獵。因此，他不可能支持槍支管制。狩獵被用作負面特征。該論點通過攻擊鮑勃的個人特征得出結論。甚至鮑勃每年夏天都會去狩獵，他仍然可以支持各種槍支管制立法。8. What is Argumentum ad Hominem? Give an example.
Answer: Argumentum ad Hominem rejects or dismisses another person's statement by attacking the person rather than the statement. For example, Bob goes hunting every summer. Therefore, he cannot possibly support gun control. Hunting is used as a negative characteristic. The argument makes the conclusion by attacking Bob's personal characteristics. Even Bob goes hunting every summer, and he could still support various gun control legislation.
答：有效性。有效性是演繹三段論真理的必要條件，但不是充分條件。有效性需要可靠的前提。結論是基于論證的有效性而得出的。如果參數無效，那么它是不可靠的，因此結論是錯誤的。9. Fill in the blank: Deductive arguments are generally evaluated in terms of their _______ and soundness.
Answer: Validity. Validity is a necessary condition for the truth of a deductive syllogism but is not a sufficient condition. Validity requires reliable premises. The conclusion is based upon and forced from the validity of the argument. If the argument is not valid, then it is not reliable, so the conclusion is false.
答：這是一個全有或全無謬誤的例子。假定“喜歡搖滾音樂”和“討厭搖滾音樂”是互斥和詳盡的。但是，有些人可能對搖滾音樂保持中立，這應該屬于第三類。10. Read the following example. What is the fallacy?
Everyone likes or hates rock music.
Answer: It is an example of all or nothing fallacy. It assumes that "like rock music" and "hate rock music" are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. However, some people can be neutral to rock music, which should belong to a third category.